Append/3 isn't deterministic if first arg is var?

When the first arg to append/3 is a var, there’s a choice point:

?- append(A, [c,d], [a,b,c,d]).
A = [a, b] ;

By comparison:

?- append([a,b], B, [a,b,c,d]).
B = [c, d].

Is this working as intended?

The similar atom_concat/3 doesn’t leave a choicepoint:

?- atom_concat(A, cd, abcd).
A = ab.

?- atom_concat(ab, B, abcd).
B = cd.

If my logic is right then yes it is correct.

append/3 needs a base case for the empty list ([]) and and a recursive case for the non-empty list ([H|T]), thus a choice point.

atom_concat/3 only needs one case because there is only the base case, thus no choice point.

With the classic definition of append/3 (which I’ve written as app/3 to avoid name clashes with builtins), there clearly is a choice point … but append/3 is written in C (see last part of the trace below), so why can’t it detect this situation?

?- listing(app).
app([], A, A).
app([X|Xs], Ys, [X|Zs]) :-
    app(Xs, Ys, Zs).

?- trace, app(A, [c,d], [a,b,c,d]).
   Call: (10) app(_2492, [c, d], [a, b, c, d]) ? 
   Call: (11) app(_2836, [c, d], [b, c, d]) ? 
   Call: (12) app(_2842, [c, d], [c, d]) ? 
   Exit: (12) app([], [c, d], [c, d]) ? 
   Exit: (11) app([b], [c, d], [b, c, d]) ? 
   Exit: (10) app([a, b], [c, d], [a, b, c, d]) ? 
A = [a, b] ;
   Redo: (12) app(_2842, [c, d], [c, d]) ? 
   Call: (13) app(_2848, [c, d], [d]) ? 
   Call: (14) app(_2854, [c, d], []) ? 
   Fail: (14) app(_2854, [c, d], []) ? 
   Fail: (13) app(_2848, [c, d], [d]) ? 
   Fail: (12) app(_2842, [c, d], [c, d]) ? 
   Fail: (11) app(_2836, [c, d], [b, c, d]) ? 
   Fail: (10) app(_2492, [c, d], [a, b, c, d]) ? 

[trace] 3 ?- trace, app([a,b], B, [a,b,c,d]).
   Call: (10) app([a, b], _3704, [a, b, c, d]) ? 
   Call: (11) app([b], _3704, [b, c, d]) ? 
   Call: (12) app([], _3704, [c, d]) ? 
   Exit: (12) app([], [c, d], [c, d]) ? 
   Exit: (11) app([b], [c, d], [b, c, d]) ? 
   Exit: (10) app([a, b], [c, d], [a, b, c, d]) ? 
B = [c, d].

The trace is a bit different with the builtin:

?- listing(append/3).
lists:append([], L, L).
lists:append([H|T], L, [H|R]) :-
    append(T, L, R).

?- trace, append(A, [c,d], [a,b,c,d]).
   Call: (10) lists:append(_5800, [c, d], [a, b, c, d]) ? 
   Exit: (10) lists:append([a, b], [c, d], [a, b, c, d]) ? 
A = [a, b] ;
   Redo: (10) lists:append([a, b|_6170], [c, d], [a, b, c, d]) ? 
   Fail: (10) lists:append(_5800, [c, d], [a, b, c, d]) ? 

In checking the source for SWI-Prolog at GitHub I only see append/3 implemented in Prolog.

In searching with PRED_IMPL I find no implementation for it in C.

If I use listing/1 on a predicate implemented in C it tells me the predicate is Foreign

?- listing(time_file).
%   Foreign: system:time_file/2


I don’t know why the traces are different.


Some libraries use

:- set_prolog_flag(generate_debug_info, false).

which makes the tracer hide calls between predicates that are compiled under this condition. THe between implies that calls from normal code to this code is shown, as well as calls from such code back to normal predicates.